Tag Archives: Title IX

The One Where I Geek Out about Title IX

So, I know it has been absolutely forever since I wrote a post, but I’m back because I finally feel like I have the brain space to write and a topic I’m psyched to tell you all about!  Last week, on Tuesday, June 23rd, the White  House held a roundtable discussion to celebrate the 37th anniversary of Title IX and through a lucky convergence of events, I was able to attend the celebration!  I’ve been fairly obsessed with Title IX since I wrote my senior thesis about it in college, so I was RIDICULOUSLY excited to get to go to the White House event for it!  As it turns out, the roundtable also is a perfect excuse share some thoughts on why I am so in love with Title IX.

For all of you who aren’t Title IX geeks like me, Title IX is Title IX of the 1972 Education Amendments and it states, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”  It is most famous for getting women and girls into sports, but we also have Title IX to thank for removing admissions barriers in higher education (for getting more women into college), barring discrimination against women teachers, administrators, and professors, and prohibiting sex discrimination in schools.

(Above: The video of the event).

So, back to the event.  It was nice to get to go to an event for something where I got to do all that and get to feel pretty jazzed and emotional about the topic at hand!  Here are a few of the event highlights:

  • It was in the OEOB.  I’m kind of a nerd and I always wanted to go to the OEOB.  Unfortunately, my efforts to snag a souvenir OEOB appointment badge failed miserably.
  • Birch Bayh, the former Senator from Indiana, who sponsored Title IX back in 1972 was there.  I didn’t realize he was still alive, so that was pretty cool.  In his brief remarks, he seemed to care very deeply about Title IX and that was cool to see.  I wrote a lot about Senator Bayh when I was doing my thesis and I always thought of him fondly from the way he came off as I read hearings from the 1970s, so it was cool to see that he actually was a good match for how I imagined him!
  • Billie Jean King was also there and that was very cool.  It’s hard to be a woman who likes sports and not think Billie Jean King is pretty awesome.  She was pretty emotional about how much Title IX meant to her and actually seemed glassy-eyed at times, so that was quite touching.  I also want to share this BJK quote, “Nerds rule!  I love nerds the best.  They’re smart and fun!”  Nothing says we should keep educating women at the highest levels and get them into science, technology, math, and engineering fields quite like that!
  • Dominique Dawes is absolutely jacked.  I felt out of shape just looking at her.  Though, I am out of shape so maybe I just felt out of shape from being out of shape.
  • Russlyn Ali, who is in charge of the Office of Civil Rights, our friends over at the Department of Education who enforce Title IX, really encouraged people to bring Title IX complaints and she talked a lot about how they want to vigorously enforce Title IX.  Fun to hear that after the Bush years!  WOO!

I took some notes on the whole event with the intention of writing a blog post that would basically be a recap, but now that I am writing and the whole thing is on YouTube, I feel like I would rather write a bit about why I care so damn much about Title IX.

The whole time I was sitting at the OEOB listening to all the amazing speakers talk about Title IX, I could not help but reflect on my own feelings about the law.  I first got interested in Title IX one summer during college, it must have been the summer of 2002 (the 30th anniversary of Title IX) when ESPN was showing all kinds of specials about Title IX and when I was trying to think of things that could be fun thesis topics.  I remember talking to one of my professors about how I wanted to write about how women’s sports and Title IX were not killing men’s sports, and my professor encouraged me to instead write about why we only talk about Title IX and its impact on sports.  What about its promise for women in education?   In retrospect, that might have been one of the more important questions someone has ever asked me.  I ended up answering that question in my thesis (we focus more on sports because the discussion about Title IX sports focuses on gender differences than the discussion about education and Title IX).  The question also prompted what I think will be a long and fulfilling relationship between me and Title IX research.

Since that project forced me to learn all about the broad applications of Title IX, I really gained an appreciation for how much Title IX has made me what I am.  At this point, it’s pretty clear that I am going to be in school forever, ideally earning a PhD and becoming an academic and I’ve been playing sports ever since I was old enough to wear a hat that was way too big for my head and hit a ball off a T.   I remember reading about Title IX and realizing how much my generation took for granted.  Before the law, colleges had quotas for how many women they could accept, textbooks were packed with sex stereotypes, women scientists had their experiments sabotaged, and women’s sports received little support.  It just blows my mind to think about that.  Where would I be if I couldn’t have completed something like 18 years of education?  What would I have studied?  What would I have done with all my free time instead of playing field hockey or soccer or running or ultimate frisbee?  I just literally I have no idea what I would be doing as I feel like my life has so often been defined by my need to learn and research and my love of sports.  It’s crazy to think that if I had been doing all of this like 37 years earlier I might be a totally different person.

I’ve still been writing about Title IX, most recently on the Bush Administration’s regulations that allow for single sex education under Title IX (we need to revoke those, by the way).  I also feel fairly certain that once I start a PhD program, I want to write my dissertation on the subject.   So, I thought that this White House event was the perfect opportunity to talk a little bit about why I care about Title IX since it’s something I plan to continue to work on for quite some time!

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It’s a Post about Academic Theory and Outrage!

As part of my morning routine, I always watch CNN while trying to will myself out of bed and this morning I was reminded of a story that’s been making my head want to explode.  Last week a story came out that Georgia Republicans are trying to ban “sex courses” (I love their use of scare quotes!) like queer theory.  Here’s the thing, I love queer theory and school, so this is the kind of thing I can really get going about.  Here’s a list of everything that is absolutely outrageous about this policy:

1) The press, I’m looking at you CNN, has embraced this language of “steamy sex courses” to describe queer theory.  Have any of these people ever,  you know, picked up a book?  It’s like they want you to believe that queer theory is a guide for how to have gay sex.  It is not.  It IS compromised of many awesome theories about how to see gender and gender identity as socially constructed.  It asks us to think way outside of the box and move beyond thinking of gender and binaries.  And my personal favorite part, is that it is actually very inclusive in mind, because it pushes for an understanding of gender that allows for a diverse array of gender identities and sexualities.  It challenges people to think in new ways and that is never a bad thing.

(I know, you’re so pumped about this theory now that you want to know where you can read more.  I’d suggest starting with Gender Trouble by Judith Butler.  It will blow your mind!)

2) Here’s what’s cool about academia, if you don’t agree with a theory, such as queer theory, no one is saying you can’t argue against it, you just have to do it on solid academic grounding.  I realize queer theory is pretty radical and some people are going to disagree with it, but to those people I say, why don’t you read some queer theory, do some reasearch, and give me a well-thought out position against it.  Just banning the teaching of ideas is a totally insane way to discredit an entire field of solid academic work.  Also, I’m pretty sure queer theory could come out on top in this academic debate!

3) “Our job is to educate our people in sciences, business, math,” said Calvin Hill, a vice chairman of the budget-writing House Appropriations Committee. He said professors aren’t going to meet those needs “by teaching a class in queer theory.”

This kind of narrow-minded thinking is a huge part of the problem.  It’s upsetting that those legislators cannot see that maybe there are some flawed assumptions in how those subjects are taught and embracing new theories like queer theory, feminist theory, etc. could help provide better understandings in all of those fields that would result in greater knowledge and improved policies based on that knowledge.

By the way, for anyone keeping track out there, I like the way this guy mentions that the purpose of education is limited to science, business, and math, 3 of the most gendered, male-heavy fields I can think of.  Are we also not responsible for teaching people about English, history, social sciences, the humanities, etc?  I feel like there’s a dangerous undercurrent in this that says education is only legit if it focuses on fields that have been traditionally associated with reinforcing a system that overwhelmingly privileges white, heterosexual males.  This is key, because banning queer theory could be a slippery slope.  What’s next?

4) I think there’s also a Title IX argument to be made here.  For those of you who are not obsessed with Title IX like I am, Title IX states,”No person in the United States shall on the basis of sex, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance.”   The law covers all areas of education and all programs at institutes of higher education.  While this has not yet been tested in court and policy recommendations do not yet exist on the issue, I would argue that banning the teaching of queer theory (or feminist theory or whatever else conservatives decide they don’t like) could be considered a form of gender discrimination.  I know if GW (where I am currently a student), decided to up and ban the women’s studies program, I would feel as though I was being discriminated against for wanting to learn more about issues related to my gender.

OK, I feel better having gotten that out!

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Women’s Sports and Injuries, A Topic I Know All to Well

In the last year, I trained for three half-marathons and was really loving running until I finally fell victim to the inevitable woman-athlete joint injury that has prevented me from running since basically September of last year. During a lovely training run on a dirt road in Vermont, I felt my something in my hip (which has bothered me since I was roughly 16, almost 10 years) pop. Nevertheless, being the jock and idiot that I am, I ran the Philadelphia Distance Run 2 weeks later and then 4 months after that I was diagnosed with a labral (cartilage) tear in my right hip when I couldn’t complete even the shortest training runs for my next race.

So, I’ve been meaning to reflect on the issue of injuries in women’s sports, and The New York Times is running this article in the Sunday magazine and I think it’s a great starting point for this blog post. The article basically explains that young women athletes are more prone to devastating injuries and those injuries are poorly understood. I think that everything the Times article presents is definitely true, but I also think that one of the real issues at hand is that in the post-Title IX era, we have yet to figure out a good model for women’s sports and I believe that is largely due to the way gender roles influence how we view women and athletes.

The first problem that exists is that I think girls and women’s sports have too eagerly adopted a male model of what it means to be an athlete. Young women athletes, and more problematically, their coaches, assume that for women to succeed they must be tough and play through the pain, no matter what the cost. In my own experience, on an extremely competitive high school field hockey team, that often meant that athletes were benched, for literally almost the entire season (as I was my senior year of high school), if they “made excuses” for their play by revealing that they were injured. It also meant that our female coach berated 15-year old girls to make them better under the pressure of their sports, in a way that was drawn from the model of the tough football coach. I will never forget being 17-years-old and watching our coach scream at one of the larger girls on our team “You’re a bus! No wonder boys don’t ask you out!” while yelling at her to make penalty shots under that pressure. In my mind, that kind of coaching, especially to girls at that age, should be a fireable offense, but instead, the coach was rewarded and celebrated for running a tough team. I don’t think that was the progress women had in mind when Title IX was passed.

Second, we still do not accept female athletes who challenge traditional gender roles by appearing too masculine. It’s easy to see this trend if you read anything about the WNBA or women’s softball or the coverage that celebrated the US women’s soccer team for being good athletes who were also hot. The consequence of that attitude is that women do not properly train to prevent injury. The Times article notes this, but doesn’t explore the context that creates the lack of training. Women are not encouraged to strength train because people still believe that women should not bulk up and women and girls themselves still fears the consequences of getting too big and looking too manly. On the other end of the spectrum, women’s sports that celebrate extremely girlish traits, like gymnastics and figure skating, cause problems because women are develop eating disorders or train so that they delay puberty and in some cases menstruation. It is clear that in women’s sports, the kind of training and preparation women do for their sports is often complicated by notions of what the ideal body image is for a woman in our culture. These concerns were prominent in the 1970s when Title IX was being debated and they are still prominent today.

Third, I think the Times is right that the medical community has been slow to understand women’s sports injuries. I think that is partially complicated by outdated beliefs about women as athletes, most notably the idea that women cannot be very serious athletes and the idea that we do not understand the woman’s body as an athletic body. Here I think my own experience is relevant. It took 10, that’s right 10, years for my hip condition to be correctly diagnosed and I think a large part of that was that I encountered doctors who did not take me seriously when I described my injury and not believing that I could have the kind of hip injury I had, they were blind to the fact that my hip is built wrong (it has extra bone) that has been eating away at my hip cartilage for years (as it turns out, I may have torn the labrum many times). But, doctors didn’t carefully examine my films and always dismissed the problem as tendonitis. As though it was impossible that a field hockey player or runner could have the kind of injury many male football, hockey, and golf players had. I will also note that no one really paid much attention to the development of my hip bones which seems crazy since the injury occurred when I was 16 and just starting puberty! So, finally after 10 years and demanding to be taken seriously, I have been diagnosed. I would bet that for many female athletes, this is not unusual. Sure some injuries, like torn ACL’s are dramatic and easy to diagnose, but I believe many injuries (possibly even ACL tears) develop slowly over time and could be prevented if women and girls were not dismissed as non-serious athletes whining about their pain.

Finally, I think we need a deeper understanding of women in an achievement culture. As women are taught that they need to be superwomen, strong, powerful, feminine, work hard, play hard overachievers, it seems inevitable that they are going to push themselves too hard and hurt themselves physically and mentally. It is clearly time for us to think realistically about what women can and should achieve and think about ways to support them in their endeavors so that they do not have to meet such insanely high expectations to win respect in our culture.

Ultimately, I feel that sure that there is a lot modern medicine can do to learn about why female athletes are so commonly injured, but I think we also need to go deeper and think about the culture of women’s sports. How can we change thoughts and beliefs so women train properly, are treated properly by parents, coaches, etc, and taken seriously by doctors when they are injured?

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The Pink Hat Phenomenon Makes Me Nuts!

WHY!?!?!

Do you see that display? It’s not often that I am walking around with my digital camera ready to take pictures of offensive displays, but I happened to have my camera on me when I was in a Target (sorry Target, you know I love you most of the time) picking some stuff up for a half marathon. Ever since the Boston Red Sox and the New England started cranking out pink Red Sox hats and pink Johnny Damon and Tom Brady jerseys like there’s no tomorrow, it has been especially difficult to be taken seriously as a female sports fan and Target’s display is just another troubling example of the pink hat phenomenon. As a pretty hardcore female sports fan, this really irks me. See, I know all about the game, whether the game is baseball, basketball, hockey, or football. One of my earliest memories is playing Nerf basketball with Dad decked out in my Larry Bird replica jersey. I could name all of the Boston Celtics at 4. I turned my family into die hard hockey fans. I’ve always been capable explaining not only the rules, but the strategy of football games. Though I resisted for quite some time, the Red Sox taught me to understand and love basketball. So, can the people in charge of marketing sports to women PLEASE stop cramming pink down my throat?

Note the girly cut.

One thing about the pink hat phenomenon that offends is that people trying to sell me pink gear assume I don’t know or care to know anything about the sport I am watching. Why is this pink hat phenomenon a problem you ask? It’s simple. Since the 1970s when people began discussing Title IX, it has often been repeated that women are not interested in sports. Currently, this logic furthers the argument that men’s teams, such as wrestling, should not be cut because there are men interested in participating. According to this logic, inequality exists not because more men’s teams exist, but because women are not interested in filling the slots on women’s teams. Moreover, they claim that since the barriers (such as a lack of women’s teams) that previously prevented women from participating in sports have been eliminated, any remaining disparities are clearly the result of women’s lack of interest in sports and that brings me back to the pink hats.

NO!

When marketers claim that women are only interested in sports or sports gear because it is pink or girly, it only fuels the myth that women could not be interested in sports because they like to watch the game or be part of the community of knowledgeable, engaged sports fans. Therefore, as long as such a stereotype persists, it will be difficult for female athletes and fans to be taken seriously and it could help perpetuate policies that keep women out of sports. While it is true that female participation in sports has increased by 904 percent for high school girls and 456 percent for college women since Title IX passed in 1972, it is also true that women still face considerable discrimination in sports, as evidenced by Don Imus’ ridiculous comments about the Rutgers’ women’s basketball team, the fact women who attend NY Jets games will be sexually harassed as part of a standard halftime ritual (http://www.nytimes.com/2007/11/20/sports/football/20fans.html?_r=1&ref=football&oref=slogin), the fact that the WNBA is largely ignored, and the women’s soccer league went defunct. Women athletes often face pay discrimination too; only recently did female tennis players start to earn the same prize money as men do and that is not necessarily the case at all tournaments. Even if the numbers of women in sports increase, the stereotypical view that women are interested and should not participate in sports subtly remains. Ultimately, it seems its cool if girls want to play some sports or behave like cheerleaders, but they should leave the serious action and the fandom to men.

The pink hat is also troubling because it’s usually a little difficult to decipher what image of women sports fans is being sold to women; are they fans or are they repackaged cheerleaders coded who are presented as sexually available to male fans as part of the experience? Pink gear tends to be cut to a girly fit (see the Tom Brady jersey above), emphasizing curves and the female body and objectifying it in a way that it isn’t when a woman wears a traditional t-shirt or jersey. Thus, pink is also a way to sell sex! Of course! In many ways, it seems like women’s gear is a way not only for teams to make money from a new fan base (women), but also to cater to male fans who want a little sex to go with their baseball. Everyone has seen images of Jessica Simpson cheering on Cowboys Quarterback Tony Romo in a pink room jersey. Isn’t part of the popularity of pink gear the way men and women buy into the fantasy that women in pink will cheer on their men? Isn’t this just a new way of creating cheerleaders, women who are totally supportive of their man and presumed to be sexually available to them after the game? Couldn’t this also be sell the fantasy that a guy could watch the Sox game, then come home take off a girl’s pink Sox jersey and hat, and a Red Sox thong and then get off? As women, why would we buy into that fantasy?!?!? Is it so bad to get the normal shirt and hat and look like a but of a tomboy? Why are women literally buying into this recreation of female fans as cheerleaders?

Is this different from....

Above: Jessica Simpson in a pink jersey and a cheerleader. Pretty similar don’t you think? Just a bunch of girls in pink, passively cheering on men from the sidelines.

But, the pink hat phenomenon is dangerous in other ways as well. Closely related to the pink hat phenomenon is the idea that women only want to obsess over hot guy athletes that they can drool over (Johnny Damon, Jacoby Ellsbury, and Tom Brady). This is disturbing on a number of levels. First, men should be concerned because this phenomenon objectifies men for their good looks and athletic prowess. Much like women have had trouble living up to beauty ideals, do real men want to have to live up to the masculine, athletic guy ideal? I’m pretty sure most guys will have trouble trying to make themselves in the image of a 25-year old hot shot like Ellsbury! Second, this puts women who are fans of male athletes in a difficult position. For example, I’m a HUGE fan of Jacoby Ellsbury, or Jacobes, as we like to call him. I got into Jacobes because I heard he can run a 40-year dash almost as fast as a track star even though he’s a baseball player. Since many baseball players are traditionally out of shape fat or chock full of HGH, I thought Jacobes was an awesome change of pace. Then, I saw Jacobes. Turns out, he’s wicked hot. Big trouble for me, a fan of the many talents of Jacoby Ellsbury. Now, every time I wear my NAVY BLUE Jacobes shirt, people think I’m just into the hot guy and I don’t know anything about sports even though it was his athletic accomplishments I thought were cool in the first place.

Above: Meet Jacobes. Impressive athlete (can run a super fast 40 and dunk a basketball from the foul line) and dreamboat for women throughout New England.

I’m picking on the Red Sox and the Patriots, even though they are my favorite teams because in many ways, they have been one of the leaders in the field of marketing pink gear (and male stars) to women due to their wild success in recent years and the rabid fan base in Boston. But, the pink phenomenon is everywhere and all teams are selling pink gear these days. According to The Boston Globe, “Sports teams are particularly interested in women fans because they shop.” Indeed, Patriots sales to women have quadrupled and pink Sox gear is selling effectively as well. I also feel like its best to speak the truth to those you love. So, the Sox and the Pats, I love you and I will continue to love you, but can’t you talk to women as actual sports fans instead of consumers who will pay you to act like repackaged glorified cheerleaders? Why not get us pumped about the game?! Many of us are interested and dying to be included (as evidenced by the boom in women’s sports), why not talk to us as athletes and people who enjoy the game. Treating women as knowledgeable fans will give you a fan base who is invested in the game and who might stick around even when you are not winning championships or playing wicked hot dudes. It’ll also let us bond with guys over a shared appreciation for someone’s OBP or speed. Women who wear blue will still be women, we’ll just be there to have interesting conversations about the game itself instead of asking questions about the basic rules of game or feeling pressured to tone down our impressive sports knowledge and behave like the “good” girls in the pink shirts. It also means that women sports fans won’t have to deny their femininity and we won’t have to be ashamed when it comes to rooting for our favorite player just because he also happens to be attractive. Isn’t it the game that drew us all to sports in the first place? I think so, so let’s drop the divisive pink, belt out “Sweet Caroline,” and try to figure out what the next Moneyball undervaluled stat will be together.

That’s more like it!

More Reading:

The Boston Globe on Marketing Pink Gear to Women: http://www.boston.com/sports/baseball/redsox/articles/2006/07/05/boston_women_root_root_root_for_home_teams/

A good report on Title IX at 35: http://www.ncwge.org/PDF/TitleIXat35.pdf

Title IX Resource Kit: http://www.aauw.org/advocacy/issue_advocacy/actionpages/upload/titleixResourceKit.pdf

Some Female Sox Fans Trying to Deal with the Pink Hat Phenomenon

http://www.girlsoxnation.com/dev/sitemap2/index.html

These fans seem more enthusiastic about pink than I am. But I like their mission statement, “Our company, while founded by two women fans in particular, is really an entire community of women and girls who love baseball. The framework was built in a website form, but girlsox nation is YOU. It’s for every woman who enthusiastically shared an insight about a player and received only a blank stare and this comment, “Wow, you know a lot about baseball for a chick.”

Chowdaheadz: A Place to Get Non-Pink Women’s Sox Gear

http://www.chowdaheadz.com/womens-apparel-accessories.html

Chowdaheadz is one of my favorite Sox-gear retailers. Notice that most of their women’s gear is red or blue. Also, notice the hilarious line of Real Women Don’t Date Yankees fans gear (http://www.chowdaheadz.com/rewododayafa4.html). I’m a little uncomfortable with the idea that women are being paired with sports fans, but I love that women as fans are in the position of power.

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Women Don’t Run?!?! Seriously?!?!

When I was five years old, I scarred my arm. Racing boys on the playground was always one of my favorite activities (I LOVED that they hated losing to a girl and they lost to me often) and when I had the lead over one of the boys, he tripped me so he could win, and I ripped my arm open. Twenty years later, I am still running and I am currently training for a half marathon. It’s been 35 years since the passage of Title IX and its guaranteed that, “No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving Federal financial assistance, “ essentially guaranteeing women an equal opportunity to participate in sports – along with equal access in all areas of education including admission to college, law, and medical school and the opportunity to participate in previously gender stereotyped classes such shop for girls or home economics for boys. As a daughter of Title IX, my sports career always flourished through field hockey, soccer, track, swimming, lacrosse, and ultimate Frisbee. It never struck me as odd that a girl would enjoy participating in sports.

So, imagine my surprise when I walked into the bookstore to grab the most recent issue of Runner’s World (I was excited about their Winter Fitness issue) and I could not find it. I searched fitness, I searched sports, and I couldn’t find anything. “Strange,” I thought, “Runner’s World is a pretty major magazine.” Then, just I gave up hope; there it was under “Men” right there with those girls in bikinis magazines like Maxim, FHM, Stuff, etc. Oddly enough the magazines for other sports such as cycling, hiking, skiing, and Sports Illustrated were in the fitness/sports section where they belonged. “Maybe it’s a mistake I thought,” but upon further examination, this was no mistake. The magazines were being restocked and ALL the running magazines were right there in the men’s section. Apparently, women don’t run or are not interested in running.

I couldn’t help but feel a sense of outrage over running’s classification as a men’s interest. Who was this bookstore to tell me that running is a “men’s” interest? In actuality, women have been running since the beginning of human history. Ancient Greek and Egyptian women ran believing it improved their fertility.[1] Greek myths celebrated Nike, the winged, female goddess of victory (and perhaps the namesake of the incredibly popular running shoes) and Atalantis, the woman who was raised by wolves to become a fast runner. She would only marry the man who could beat her in race. Granted women’s running suffered many setbacks in history including many attempts to discredit women’s running; women were not officially allowed to compete in the Olympics until 1928. They could not run the 1,500 meters until 1972 (the same year Title IX passed) and the women’s marathon was kept out of the Olympics until 1984![2] Through all of those challenges, women kept running, either in their own events or as bandits in the men’s races. Currently, running is enormously popular among women who run for competition, companionship, charity, the challenge, or simply just to feel good and healthy. Like men, women run and have success at all levels; from the woman just trying to make it through her first mile on the treadmill as part of her New Year’s resolution to the women who win major, elite races. Runner’s World has even been edited by women such as Claire Kowalchik (also the author of The Complete Book of Running for Women) and many of its writers and editors are women. The magazine is clearly written for a co-ed audience. So, why is it I have to go to the men’s section to find a magazine about a hobby many women and men enjoy? Is someone trying to tell me that in 2007 someone still believes women cannot or do not want to run?


[1] Kowalchik, Claire. 1999. The Complete Book of Running for Women. New York: Pocket Books.

[2] Ibid.

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